Data Storage Device – Arm Splint – Leg Splint : Storage Device
April 7, 2014 Jon 0 Comments
Devices that are not used exclusively for recording (e.g. hands, mouths, musical instruments) and devices that are intermediate in the storing/retrieving process (e.g. eyes, ears, cameras, scanners, microphones, speakers, monitors, projectors) are not usually considered storage devices. Devices that are exclusively for recording (e.g. printers), exclusively for reading (e.g. barcode readers), or devices that process only one form of information (e.g. phonographs) may or may not be considered storage devices. In computing these are known as input/output devices.
An organic brain may or may not be considered a data storage device.
All information is data. However, not all data is information.
Many data storage devices are also media players. Any device that can store and playback multimedia may also be considered a media player such as in the case with the HDD media player. Designated hard drives are used to play saved or streaming media on home entertainment systems.
International Data Corporation estimated that the total amount of digital data was 281 billion gigabytes in 2007, and had for the first time exceeded the amount of storage.
Data storage equipment
Any input/output equipment may be considered data storage equipment if it writes to and reads from a data storage medium. Data storage equipment uses either:
portable methods (easily replaced),
semi-portable methods requiring mechanical disassembly tools and/or opening a chassis, or
inseparable methods meaning loss of memory if disconnected from the unit.
The following are examples of those methods:
Solid freeform fabrication
Mono reel or reel-to-reel
Compact Cassette player/recorder
Cartridge accessing/connecting (tape/disk/circuitry)
Flash memory devices
Hard disk drive
Circuitry with non-volatile RAM
Circuitry with volatile RAM
A recording medium is a physical material that holds data expressed in any of the existing recording formats. With electronic media, the data and the recording medium is sometimes referred to as “software” despite the more common use of the word to describe computer software. With (traditional art) static media, art materials such as crayons may be considered both equipment and medium as the wax, charcoal or chalk material from the equipment becomes part of the surface of the medium.
Some recording media may be temporary either by design or by nature. Volatile organic compounds may be used to preserve the environment or to purposely make data expire over time. Data such as smoke signals or skywriting are temporary by nature. Depending on the volatility, a gas (e.g. atmosphere, smoke) or a liquid surface such as a lake would be considered a temporary recording medium if at all.
Ancient and timeless examples
The Gutenberg Bible displayed by the United States Library of Congress, demonstrating printed pages as a storage medium.
A set of index cards in a file box are a nonlinear storage medium.
Any object visible to the eye, used to mark a location such as a, stone, flag or skull.
Any crafting material used to form shapes such as clay, wood, metal, glass, wax or quipu.
Any branding surface that would scar under intense heat (chiefly for livestock or humans).
Any marking substance such as paint, ink or chalk.
Any surface that would hold a marking substance such as, papyrus, paper, skin.
Modern examples by energy used
Graffiti on a public wall. Public surfaces are being used as unconventional data storage media, often without permission.
Photographic film is a photochemical data storage medium
A floppy disk is a magnetic data storage medium
Hitachi 2.5 inch laptop hard drive. A hard drive is both storage equipment and a storage medium
Pins and holes
Music box cylinder or disk
Grooves (See also Audio Data)
DictaBelt (groove on plastic belt)
Capacitance Electronic Disc
Wire recording (stainless steel wire)
Drum memory (magnetic drum)
Holographic data storage
3D optical data storage
Semiconductor used in volatile RAM microchips
Floating-gate transistor used in non-volatile memory cards
Modern examples by shape
A typical way to classify data storage media is to consider its shape and type of movement (or non-movement) relative to the read/write device(s) of the storage apparatus as listed:
Paper card storage
Punched card (mechanical)
Cams and tracers (pipe organ combination-action memory memorizing stop selections
Tape storage (long, thin, flexible, linearly moving bands)
Paper tape (mechanical)
Magnetic tape (a tape passing one or more read/write/erase heads)
Disk storage (flat, round, rotating object)
Gramophone record (used for distributing some 1980s home computer programs) (mechanical)
Floppy disk, ZIP disk (removable) (magnetic)
Optical disc such as CD, DVD, Blu-ray Disc
Hard disk drive (magnetic)
Magnetic bubble memory
Flash memory/memory card (solid state semiconductor memory)
USB flash drive (also known as a “thumb drive” or “keydrive”)
CompactFlash I and II
Sony Memory Stick (Std/Duo/PRO/MagicGate versions)
Bekenstein (2003) foresees that miniaturization might lead to the invention of devices that store bits on a single atom.
Weight and volume
Especially for carrying around data, the weight and volume per MB are relevant. They are quite large for written and printed paper compared with modern electronic media. On the other hand, written and printer paper do not require (the weight and volume of) reading equipment, and handwritten edits only require simple writing equipment, such as a pen.
With mobile data connections the data need not be carried around to have them available.
Blank media tax
Computer data storage
Medium format (film)
Nonlinear medium (random access)
^ Gilbert, Walter (Feb 1986). “The RNA World”. Nature 319: 618. doi:10.1038/319618a0.
^ Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 1950, 1953 pp:150-152, ISBN 0345342968
^ Gantz, John F. et al. (2008). “The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe”. International Data Corporation via EMC. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/diverse-exploding-digital-universe.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
^ Aaron P. Nelson and Susan Gilbert, Harvard Medical School Guide to Achieving Optimal Memory, Mar 2005, page 66
^ Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American.
Bennett, John C. (1997). ‘JISC/NPO Studies on the Preservation of Electronic Materials: A Framework of Data Types and Formats, and Issues Affecting the Long Term Preservation of Digital Material. British Library Research and Innovation Report 50. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/papers/bl/jisc-npo50/bennet.html.
Historical Notes about the Cost of Hard Drive Storage Space
Macroscopic 10-Terabiterquare-Inch Arrays from Block Copolymers with Lateral Order – Science magazine article about perspective usage of sapphire in digital storage media technology
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Audio recording formats
Phonautogram (1857) Phonograph cylinder (1877) Gramophone record (1895) Wire recording (1898) Reel-to-reel tape (1940s) SoundScriber (1945) Gray Audograph (1945) Dictabelt (1947) LP record (1948) 45 rpm record (1949) RCA tape cartridge (1958) Fidelipac (1959) Stereo-Pak (1962) Compact Cassette (1963) 8-track (1964) PlayTape (1966) Mini Cassette (1967) Microcassette (1969) Steno-Cassette (1971) Elcaset (1976) Cassette single (1980) Picocassette (1985)
Soundstream (1976) 3M (1979) X80/ProDigi (1980) DASH (1982) Compact Disc (1982) Digital Audio Tape (1987) ADAT (1991) MiniDisc (1991) NT (1992) Digital Compact Cassette (1992) High Definition Compatible Digital (1995) 5.1 Music Disc (1997) Super Audio CD (1999) DVD-Audio (2000) USB flash drive (as audio format, 2004) Hi-MD (2004) SlotMusic (2008)
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Video storage formats
Quadruplex (1956) VERA (1958) Type A (1965) CV-2000 (1965) Akai (1967) U-matic (1969) EIAJ-1 (1969) Cartrivision (1972) Philips VCR (1972) V-Cord (1974) VX (1974) Betamax (1975) IVC (1975) Type B (1976) Type C (1976) VHS (1976) VK (1977) SVR (1979) Video 2000 (1980) CVC (1980) VHS-C (1982) M (1982) Betacam (1982) Video8 (1985) MII (1986) S-VHS (1987) Hi8 (1989) S-VHS-C (1987) W-VHS (1994)
D1 (1986) D2 (1988) D3 (1991) DCT (1992) D5 (1994) Digital Betacam (1993) DV (1995) Digital-S (D9) (1995) DVCPRO (1995) Betacam SX (1996) DVCAM (1996) HDCAM (1997) DVCPRO50 (1997) D-VHS (1998) Digital8 (1999) DVCPRO HD (2000) D6 HDTV VTR (2000) MicroMV (2001) HDV (2003) HDCAM SR (2003)
Phonovision (1927) TeD (1975) Laserdisc (1978) CED (1981) VHD (1983) Laserfilm (1984) CD Video (1987)
VCD (1993) MovieCD (c.1995) DVD/DVD-Video (1995) MiniDVD (c.1995) CVD (1998) SVCD (1998) EVD (2003) XDCAM (2003) H(D)VD(2004) FVD (2005) UMD (2005) VMD (2006)
HD DVD (2006) Blu-ray Disc (2006) HVD (2007) CBHD (2008)
P2 (2004) SxS (2007)
MOD (2005) AVCHD (2006) AVC-Intra (2006) TOD (2007) iFrame (2009)
Non-video TV recording
Kinescope (1947) Electronicam kinescope (1950s) Electronic Video Recording (1967)
Categories: Communication | Data management | Film and video technology | Sound production technology | Computer storage | Media technology | Storage media | Art materials | Recording | Library and information science
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