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Data Storage Device – Arm Splint – Leg Splint : Storage Device

April 7, 2014 Jon 0 Comments

Terminology
Devices that are not used exclusively for recording (e.g. hands, mouths, musical instruments) and devices that are intermediate in the storing/retrieving process (e.g. eyes, ears, cameras, scanners, microphones, speakers, monitors, projectors) are not usually considered storage devices. Devices that are exclusively for recording (e.g. printers), exclusively for reading (e.g. barcode readers), or devices that process only one form of information (e.g. phonographs) may or may not be considered storage devices. In computing these are known as input/output devices.
An organic brain may or may not be considered a data storage device.
All information is data. However, not all data is information.
Many data storage devices are also media players. Any device that can store and playback multimedia may also be considered a media player such as in the case with the HDD media player. Designated hard drives are used to play saved or streaming media on home entertainment systems.
Trends
International Data Corporation estimated that the total amount of digital data was 281 billion gigabytes in 2007, and had for the first time exceeded the amount of storage.
Data storage equipment
Any input/output equipment may be considered data storage equipment if it writes to and reads from a data storage medium. Data storage equipment uses either:
portable methods (easily replaced),
semi-portable methods requiring mechanical disassembly tools and/or opening a chassis, or
inseparable methods meaning loss of memory if disconnected from the unit.
The following are examples of those methods:
Portable methods
Hand crafting
Flat surface
Printmaking
Photographic
Fabrication
Automated assembly
Textile
Molding
Solid freeform fabrication
Cylindrical accessing
Card reader/drive
Tape drive
Mono reel or reel-to-reel
Compact Cassette player/recorder
Disk accessing
Disk drive
Disk enclosure
Cartridge accessing/connecting (tape/disk/circuitry)
Peripheral networking
Flash memory devices
Semi-portable methods
Hard disk drive
Circuitry with non-volatile RAM
Inseparable methods
Circuitry with volatile RAM
Neurons
Recording medium
A recording medium is a physical material that holds data expressed in any of the existing recording formats. With electronic media, the data and the recording medium is sometimes referred to as “software” despite the more common use of the word to describe computer software. With (traditional art) static media, art materials such as crayons may be considered both equipment and medium as the wax, charcoal or chalk material from the equipment becomes part of the surface of the medium.
Some recording media may be temporary either by design or by nature. Volatile organic compounds may be used to preserve the environment or to purposely make data expire over time. Data such as smoke signals or skywriting are temporary by nature. Depending on the volatility, a gas (e.g. atmosphere, smoke) or a liquid surface such as a lake would be considered a temporary recording medium if at all.
Ancient and timeless examples
The Gutenberg Bible displayed by the United States Library of Congress, demonstrating printed pages as a storage medium.
A set of index cards in a file box are a nonlinear storage medium.
Optical
Any object visible to the eye, used to mark a location such as a, stone, flag or skull.
Any crafting material used to form shapes such as clay, wood, metal, glass, wax or quipu.
Any branding surface that would scar under intense heat (chiefly for livestock or humans).
Any marking substance such as paint, ink or chalk.
Any surface that would hold a marking substance such as, papyrus, paper, skin.
Chemical
RNA
DNA
Pheromone
Modern examples by energy used
Graffiti on a public wall. Public surfaces are being used as unconventional data storage media, often without permission.
Photographic film is a photochemical data storage medium
A floppy disk is a magnetic data storage medium
Hitachi 2.5 inch laptop hard drive. A hard drive is both storage equipment and a storage medium
Chemical
Dipstick
Thermodynamic
Thermometer
Photochemical
Photographic film
Mechanical
Pins and holes
Punch card
Paper tape
Music roll
Music box cylinder or disk
Grooves (See also Audio Data)
Phonograph cylinder
Gramophone record
DictaBelt (groove on plastic belt)
Capacitance Electronic Disc
Magnetic storage
Wire recording (stainless steel wire)
Magnetic tape
Drum memory (magnetic drum)
Floppy disk
Optical storage
Photo paper
X-ray
Microform
Hologram
Projected transparency
Optical disc
Magneto-optical disc
Holographic data storage
3D optical data storage
Electrical
Semiconductor used in volatile RAM microchips
Floating-gate transistor used in non-volatile memory cards
Modern examples by shape
A typical way to classify data storage media is to consider its shape and type of movement (or non-movement) relative to the read/write device(s) of the storage apparatus as listed:
Paper card storage
Punched card (mechanical)
Cams and tracers (pipe organ combination-action memory memorizing stop selections
Tape storage (long, thin, flexible, linearly moving bands)
Paper tape (mechanical)
Magnetic tape (a tape passing one or more read/write/erase heads)
Disk storage (flat, round, rotating object)
Gramophone record (used for distributing some 1980s home computer programs) (mechanical)
Floppy disk, ZIP disk (removable) (magnetic)
Holographic
Optical disc such as CD, DVD, Blu-ray Disc
Minidisc
Hard disk drive (magnetic)
Magnetic bubble memory
Flash memory/memory card (solid state semiconductor memory)
xD-Picture Card
MultiMediaCard
USB flash drive (also known as a “thumb drive” or “keydrive”)
SmartMedia
CompactFlash I and II
Secure Digital
Sony Memory Stick (Std/Duo/PRO/MagicGate versions)
Solid-state drive
Bekenstein (2003) foresees that miniaturization might lead to the invention of devices that store bits on a single atom.
Weight and volume
Especially for carrying around data, the weight and volume per MB are relevant. They are quite large for written and printed paper compared with modern electronic media. On the other hand, written and printer paper do not require (the weight and volume of) reading equipment, and handwritten edits only require simple writing equipment, such as a pen.
With mobile data connections the data need not be carried around to have them available.
See also
Archival science
Blank media tax
Computer data storage
Content format
Data transmission
Semiconductor memory
Digital Preservation
Format war
Flip-flop (electronics)
IOPS
Library
Medium format (film)
Memristor
Nanodot
Nonlinear medium (random access)
Recording formats
Telecommunication
References
^ Gilbert, Walter (Feb 1986). “The RNA World”. Nature 319: 618. doi:10.1038/319618a0. 
^ Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 1950, 1953 pp:150-152, ISBN 0345342968
^ Gantz, John F. et al. (2008). “The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe”. International Data Corporation via EMC. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/diverse-exploding-digital-universe.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
^ Aaron P. Nelson and Susan Gilbert, Harvard Medical School Guide to Achieving Optimal Memory, Mar 2005, page 66
^ Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American.
Further reading
Bennett, John C. (1997). ‘JISC/NPO Studies on the Preservation of Electronic Materials: A Framework of Data Types and Formats, and Issues Affecting the Long Term Preservation of Digital Material. British Library Research and Innovation Report 50. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/papers/bl/jisc-npo50/bennet.html. 
External links
Historical Notes about the Cost of Hard Drive Storage Space
Macroscopic 10-Terabiterquare-Inch Arrays from Block Copolymers with Lateral Order – Science magazine article about perspective usage of sapphire in digital storage media technology
v d e
Audio recording formats
Analog
Phonautogram (1857)  Phonograph cylinder (1877)  Gramophone record (1895)  Wire recording (1898)  Reel-to-reel tape (1940s)  SoundScriber (1945)  Gray Audograph (1945)  Dictabelt (1947)  LP record (1948)  45 rpm record (1949)  RCA tape cartridge (1958)  Fidelipac (1959)  Stereo-Pak (1962)  Compact Cassette (1963)  8-track (1964)  PlayTape (1966)  Mini Cassette (1967)  Microcassette (1969)  Steno-Cassette (1971)  Elcaset (1976)  Cassette single (1980)  Picocassette (1985)
Digital
Soundstream (1976)  3M (1979)  X80/ProDigi (1980)  DASH (1982)  Compact Disc (1982)  Digital Audio Tape (1987)  ADAT (1991)  MiniDisc (1991)  NT (1992)  Digital Compact Cassette (1992)  High Definition Compatible Digital (1995)  5.1 Music Disc (1997)  Super Audio CD (1999)  DVD-Audio (2000)  USB flash drive (as audio format, 2004)  Hi-MD (2004)  SlotMusic (2008)
v d e
Video storage formats
Videotape
Analog
Quadruplex (1956)  VERA (1958)  Type A (1965)  CV-2000 (1965)  Akai (1967)  U-matic (1969)  EIAJ-1 (1969)  Cartrivision (1972)  Philips VCR (1972)  V-Cord (1974)  VX (1974)  Betamax (1975)  IVC (1975)  Type B (1976)  Type C (1976)  VHS (1976)  VK (1977)  SVR (1979)  Video 2000 (1980)  CVC (1980)  VHS-C (1982)  M (1982)  Betacam (1982)  Video8 (1985)  MII (1986)  S-VHS (1987)  Hi8 (1989)  S-VHS-C (1987)  W-VHS (1994)
Digital
D1 (1986)  D2 (1988)  D3 (1991)  DCT (1992)  D5 (1994)  Digital Betacam (1993)  DV (1995)  Digital-S (D9) (1995)  DVCPRO (1995)  Betacam SX (1996)  DVCAM (1996)  HDCAM (1997)  DVCPRO50 (1997)  D-VHS (1998)  Digital8 (1999)  DVCPRO HD (2000)  D6 HDTV VTR (2000)  MicroMV (2001)  HDV (2003)  HDCAM SR (2003)
Videodisc
Analog
Phonovision (1927)  TeD (1975)  Laserdisc (1978)  CED (1981)  VHD (1983)  Laserfilm (1984)  CD Video (1987)
Digital
VCD (1993)  MovieCD (c.1995)  DVD/DVD-Video (1995)  MiniDVD (c.1995)  CVD (1998)  SVCD (1998)  EVD (2003)  XDCAM (2003)  H(D)VD(2004)  FVD (2005)  UMD (2005)  VMD (2006) 
High Definition
HD DVD (2006)  Blu-ray Disc (2006)  HVD (2007)  CBHD (2008)
Solid state
P2 (2004)  SxS (2007)
Digital tapeless
MOD (2005)  AVCHD (2006)  AVC-Intra (2006)  TOD (2007)  iFrame (2009)
Non-video TV recording
Kinescope (1947)  Electronicam kinescope (1950s)  Electronic Video Recording (1967)
Categories: Communication | Data management | Film and video technology | Sound production technology | Computer storage | Media technology | Storage media | Art materials | Recording | Library and information science

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